18 19 Modern usage edit At the turn of the 20th century, folk medicine was viewed as a practice used by poverty-stricken communities and quacks. However, synthetic or biomedical products have been questioned by some parts of Western society, allowing for interest in natural medicines. The prevalence of folk medicine in certain areas of the world varies according to cultural norms. 20 Some modern medicine is based on plant phytochemicals that had been used in folk medicine. 21 Researchers state that many of the alternative treatments are "statistically indistinguishable from placebo treatments ". 22 Knowledge transmission and creation edit Indigenous medicine is generally transmitted orally through a community, family and individuals until "collected". Within a given culture, elements of indigenous medicine knowledge may be diffusely known by many, or may be gathered and applied by those in a specific role of healer such as a shaman or midwife. 23 Three factors legitimize the role of the healer their own beliefs, the success of their actions and the beliefs of the community.
Primitive african, medical, practices
4 Francisco hernández, physician to Philip ii of Spain spent the years gathering information in Mexico and then wrote rerum Medicarum novae hispaniae thesaurus, many versions of which have been published including one by Francisco ximénez. Both Hernandez and Ximenez fitted Aztec ethnomedicinal information into the european concepts of disease such as "warm "cold and "moist but it is not clear that the aztecs used these categories. 13 juan de Esteyneffer 's Florilegio medicinal de todas las enfermedas compiled European texts and added 35 Mexican plants. Martín de la Cruz wrote an herbal in Nahuatl which was translated into latin by juan Badiano as Libellus de medicinalibus Indorum Herbis or Codex Barberini, latin 241 and given to king Carlos v of Spain in 1552. 14 It was apparently written in haste citation needed and influenced by the european occupation of the previous 30 years. Fray bernardino de sahagún 's used ethnographic methods to compile his codices that then became the historia general de las Cosas de nueva españa, published in 1793. 14 Castore durante published his Herbario nuovo in 1585 describing medicinal plants from Europe and the east and West Indies. It was translated into german in 1609 and Italian editions were published for the next century. Colonial America edit In 17th and 18th-century America, traditional folk healers, frequently women, used herbal remedies, cupping and leeching. 15 Native american traditional herbal medicine introduced cures for malaria, dysentery, scurvy, non-venereal syphilis, and goiter problems. 16 Many of these herbal and folk remedies continued on through the 19th and into the 20th century, 17 with some plant medicines forming the basis for modern pharmacology.
Some regions have tried to tackle the problem by enacting laws to protect indigenous knowledge. For example, cusco, in Peru, last muziekschool year outlawed the exploitation of native species for commercial gain, including patenting genes or other resources the trees contain (see peruvian region outlaws biopiracy ). India's council for Scientific and Industrial Research (csir) takes a more pragmatic approach to bridging the divide. In 2001, it launched a traditional knowledge digital library (tkdl). From last year, the epo has been able to consult the 24 million page, multilingual database on traditional remedies and medicinal plants before granting patents (see biomed Analysis: keep traditional knowledge open but safe ). Many other countries have, or are considering establishing, similar databases to protect their local resources, including China, ghana, malaysia, nigeria, south Africa, tanzania, thailand and some nations in the middle east. Regulating remedies beyond differences in indigenous and Western knowledge systems, efforts to make traditional medicines mainstream also have to cope with significant differences in regulation. Every country has a national drug authority of sorts, responsible for administering and managing modern medicines and setting drug policies. The problem with traditional medicine is that it often means different things to different people.
The canon was translated into latin in the 12th century and remained a medical authority in Europe until the 17th century. The salbe Unani system of traditional medicine is also based on the canon. Translations of the early roman-Greek compilations were made into german by hieronymus Bock whose herbal, published in 1546, was called Kreuter Buch. The book was translated into dutch as Pemptades by rembert Dodoens (15171585 and from Dutch into English by carolus Clusius, (15261609 published by henry lyte in 1578 as a nievve herball. This became john Gerard 's (15451612) Herball or General Hiftorie of Plantes. 4 5 Each new work was a compilation of existing texts with new additions. Women's folk knowledge existed in undocumented parallel with these texts. 4 Forty-four drugs, diluents, flavouring agents and emollients mentioned by dioscorides are still listed in the official pharmacopoeias of Europe. 5 The puritans took gerard's work to the United States lamellen where it influenced American Indigenous medicine.
Modern medicine, on the other hand, has stringent intellectual property laws and a highly evolved patenting system used to protect knowledge about drugs or medical techniques. As Western researchers realise the wealth of knowledge stored in traditional medicine systems, and the need for new drugs becomes more urgent, many scientists have begun searching indigenous sources for new drugs: a term dubbed 'bioprospecting' (see bioprospecting ). In some cases, researchers have sought patent protection for medicinal compounds that had already been used for centuries to treat disease. An example is the 1995 patent on an anti-fungal neem derivative commonly used in Indian traditional remedies. The european Patent Office (EPO) granted a patent to the us department of Agriculture (usda) and the multinational wr grace and Company. Neem is commonly used in Indian traditional medicines Spice photo gallery The Indian government convinced the epo to revoke the patent on the basis of prior use, but it took five years and millions of dollars. This plundering of freely available indigenous resources has been termed 'biopiracy' and is a strong example of the challenges facing efforts to take traditional medicine mainstream.
Financing for houston, medical, practices : 4 viable
Artemisinin, anti-malarial, produced by the Chinese herb Qinghao or sweet wormwood. Traditional Chinese medicine for chills and fevers. Cromoglycate, asthma prophylaxis, synthesized from podophyllotoxin, produced by the mandrake plant. Traditional Middle eastern remedies for asthma. Khellin has also traditionally been used in Egypt to treat kidney stones. Etoposide, anti-cancer, synthesized from podophyllotoxin, produced by the mandrake plant.
Various remedies in Chinese, japanese and Eastern folk medicine hirudin Anticoagulant Salivary glands in leeches, voor now produced by genetic engineering Traditional remedies across the globe, from Shui zhi medicine in China to 18th and 19th century medicine in Europe lovastatin to lower cholesterol foods such. Used to synthesize other compounds such as mevastatin and pravastatin Mushrooms are used to treat a wide range of illnesses in traditional medicine in China, japan, eastern Europe and Russia opiates Analgesic Unripe poppy seeds Traditional Arab, Chinese, european, Indian and North African medicines. And there is rising concern among conservationists that a growing traditional medicine market threatens biodiversity through overharvesting of medicinal plants or increased use of body parts from endangered animals, such as tigers, rhinos and elephants. Beyond the sustainability of natural resources, marrying traditional and modern medicine faces numerous challenges that stem from key differences in how each is practiced, evaluated and managed (see table 2). Table 2: key differences between traditional and modern medicine Traditional medicine modern medicine Knowledge protection Open access Closed, patent-protected Formulation Ad hoc during consultation with the patient Pre-determined, and once tested in clinical trials cannot be changed unless re-tested Regulation Virtually none, though some countries.
Artemisinin, which is extracted from, artemisia annua or Chinese sweet wormwood, is the basis for the most effective malaria drugs the world has ever seen. Western researchers first became aware of the compound in the 1980s, though it had long been used in China to treat malaria. But it wasn't until 2004 that the who endorsed its use worldwide. Much of this delay was because of the skepticism about the drug, and different research groups spent years validating the claims of Chinese traditional healers. Artemisinin is proving useful against other diseases too and has been shown to have great potential in treating cancers and schistosomiasis.
But the wonder drug is already showing signs of fallibility. South-East Asia say that in some people, the malaria parasite has become resistant to artemisinin treatment. Across the globe, researchers, policymakers, pharmaceutical companies and traditional healers are joining forces to bring tm into the 21st century. In some ways, it is already here. Nearly a quarter of all modern medicines are derived from natural products, many of which were first used in traditional remedies (see table 1). Table 1: Selected modern drugs that come from traditional medicine. Drug, what it is for, derived from, originally used.
Traditional, chinese medicine And Hemp
And in 2007, Brazil saw revenues of US160 million from traditional therapies — part of a global market of more than US60 billion. Desperately seeking drugs, the truth is that dieren modern medicine is desperately short of new treatments. It takes years for a new drug to get through the research and development pipeline to manufacture and the cost is enormous. And growing drug resistance, in part caused by the misuse of medications, has rendered several antibiotics and other life-saving drugs useless. Both these trends mean that scientists and pharmaceutical companies are urgently looking for new drug sources and are increasingly turning their eyes to traditional medicine. A few major triumphs have stoked interest in traditional medicine as a source for highly successful and lucrative drugs. The best known of these is artemisinin used to treat malaria (see box 1). Artemisinin: traditional medicine's blockbluster drug.
Traditional medicine (TM) is due a revival. For millennia, people around the world have healed the sick millimol with herbal or animal-derived remedies, handed down through generations. In Africa and Asia, 80 per cent of the population still uses traditional remedies rather than modern medicine for primary healthcare. And in developed nations, tm is rapidly gaining appeal. Estimates suggest up to 80 per cent of the population has tried a therapy such as acupuncture or homeopathy. And a survey conducted earlier this year found that 74 per cent of us medical students believe that Western medicine would benefit by integrating traditional or alternative therapies and practices. The industry is worth big money. In 2005, traditional medicines worth US14 billion were sold in China.
and corrected earlier authors for his de materia medica, adding much new material; the work was translated into several languages, and Turkish, arabic and Hebrew names were added to it over the centuries. 5 Latin manuscripts of de materia medica were combined with a latin herbal by Apuleius Platonicus ( Herbarium Apuleii platonici ) and were incorporated into the Anglo-saxon codex Cotton Vitellius. These early Greek and Roman compilations became the backbone of European medical theory and were translated by the persian avicenna (Ibn Sīnā, 9801037 the persian Rhazes (rāzi, 865925) and the jewish maimonides. 4 Medieval and later edit further information: Medicine in medieval Islam and Medieval medicine of Western Europe Arabic indigenous medicine developed from the conflict between the magic-based medicine of the bedouins and the Arabic translations of the hellenic and ayurvedic medical traditions. 6 Spanish indigenous medicine was influenced by the Arabs from 711 to 1492. 7 Islamic physicians and Muslim botanists such as al-Dinawari 8 and Ibn al-baitar 9 significantly expanded on the earlier knowledge of materia medica. The most famous Persian medical treatise was avicenna's The canon of Medicine, which was an early pharmacopoeia and introduced clinical trials.
The who notes, however, that "inappropriate use of traditional medicines or practices can have negative or dangerous effects" and that "further research is needed to ascertain the efficacy and safety" of several of the practices and medicinal plants used by traditional medicine systems. 1 The line between alternative medicine and quackery, alternative medicine or fraud is complex and context dependant. Contents Usage and history edit Classical history edit further information: Medicine in ancient Greece and Medicine in ancient Rome In the written record, the study of herbs dates back 5,000 years to the ancient Sumerians, who described well-established medicinal uses for plants. In Ancient Egyptian medicine, the Ebers papyrus from. 1552 bc records a list of folk remedies and magical medical practices. 2 The Old Testament also mentions herb use and cultivation in regards to kashrut. Many herbs and minerals used in ayurveda were described by ancient Indian herbalists such as Charaka and Sushruta during the 1st millennium. 3 The first Chinese herbal book was the Shennong Bencao jing, compiled during the han Dynasty but dating back to a much earlier date, which was later augmented as the yaoxing Lun ( Treatise diner on the nature of Medicinal Herbs ) during the tang Dynasty.
Medical, seo archives - carbon foot, medical
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine ) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. The, world health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention. 1, in some, asian and, african countries, up to 80 of the population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. When adopted outside its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often considered a form of alternative medicine. Practices known as traditional medicines include. Traditional European Medicine (tem traditional Chinese medicine (tcm traditional Korean medicine (tkm traditional African medicine, (tam antwerp ayurveda, siddha medicine, unani, ancient Iranian medicine, iranian (Persian), islamic medicine, muti, and, ifá. Scientific disciplines which study traditional medicine include herbalism, ethnomedicine, ethnobotany, and medical anthropology.